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How not to throw the baby out with the bathwater.

So the bathwater is scummy, soapy, dirty, we don’t want it any more. The baby is gorgeous and full of potential, we definitely want to keep and nurture that. How easy is it to throw the baby out with the bathwater?

For me, as a horse trainer, the bathwater is all the practices that I see that are detrimental to the horse’s psychological and physical wellbeing.

The baby is the stuff that is beneficial, or simply neutral in terms of the horse’s wellbeing. The baby might even be the things that matter to the humans wellbeing, as long as those are also compatible with the horse’s overall wellbeing.

Let me explain that more clearly. If you’ve read the other posts on my blog you probably already have a bit of an idea about my ethos. If you haven’t, here’s a little resume.

Having studied psychology, I am aware of the emotional impact that the different approaches to training can and do have on the horse.

I can see that in circumstances where the quantity or intensity of use of aversive stimuli to create responses heavily outweighs the appetitive experiences that the horse may have, we end up with a less than happy horse, one whose wellbeing has been impacted upon in a detrimental way.

For example, creating obedience to the aids by using fear or pain or the threat of it, such as bit, whips, spurs, strong leg aids or an assistant on the ground with a lunge whip or schooling whip. Or introducing new experiences in a way that is overly stressful, for example by using flooding.

In my job, consulting on horse behaviour and training, I often am called upon to pick up the pieces with horses that have had their emotional balance tipped too far into fight/ flight on a routine basis. My role is to help that horse find emotional equilibrium, to promote their psychological wellbeing, to balance that with their physical wellbeing and the needs of their owners.

Sometimes this task is more straightforward than others. The needs, desires and attitudes of the owner always have a huge impact on what we do and how we do it. Protecting the best interests of the horse can be a challenge, helping the owners to understand their role in that an even greater one.

When I am working with individual clients, I always aim to be as supportive as I am able through this process. I help them to identify the baby, and the bathwater, with clarity, so that they only discard what isn’t required, or is detrimental.

But it is the perception of the horseworld as a whole that has prompted me to write this post. I have realised that, unwittingly, I have not been clear enough about how we can get rid of the bathwater yet still keep the baby. All this talk about liberty work, training with appetitives, tackless (not tactless!) riding…. I’ve realised that, rather than inspiring people, it can serve to exclude the very ones I hope to inspire.

On a personal level, I do not believe it is necessary, or even appropriate, to eliminate all aversive stimuli from the horse’s life and retain only appetitive stimuli. Certainly not if we intend to be in the same space with them, or connected via ropes and reins. My language has always been ‘minimise aversives’ and ‘maximise appetitives’.

However, while I have a very clear picture in my head of how this looks, having trained this way for many years, I appreciate that it may be hard to visualise if you haven’t experienced it.

The thing is, I believe we can still do all the ‘normal’ things we do with horses: dressage, jumping, cross country etc and still throw out the bathwater. The events themselves aren’t the bathwater, it’s the way they are trained (and in some cases scored and judged) and the attitudes we hold that need to be poured down the sink.

There is so much of value in traditional horsemanship, and in the ideals of correctly preparing a horse in terms of physical fitness and physical balance. This stuff, and more, is not the bathwater, this is the baby, and we don’t need to throw it away.

The key is in developing the emotional balance of the horse. When I work with a naive horse, one that is at the start of their training, and has had limited dealings with humans, I find it relatively easy to build their confidence. I also find that it can be quite acceptable, not to say safe, to use aversive stimuli in a mild, structured way, without damaging the emotional equilibrium of the horse. These horses don’t have ‘baggage’ relating to pressure or equipment.

On the other side of the coin, a horse that has already experienced a large number of aversive stimuli and who has been exposed to new stimuli and situations in a frightening way, has already developed issues with pressure and with certain equipment by the time I get to them. In these cases, in order to redress the balance, I have to work with very minimal aversives and use appetitives in order to build up confidence and relaxation.

In terms of our bathwater analogy, I guess in the second case, the baby needs a lot more scrubbing, a lot more soap, and the bathwater has more scum by the time we are done. There is more to throw out.

I’ve always been hesitant about how I discuss the use of aversives in training, because I have believed that in many cases people take any kind of suggestion that some aversive stimuli might be acceptable as a carte blanche to beat up and frighten horses. So in my efforts to avoid that, I think that perhaps I’ve given the impression that I sway too far in the other direction. It’s hard to get a point like this across clearly in writing. After all, I find that few people truly recognise a happy horse. In the horseworld we have become so immune to signs of tension, pain suffering in horses that what is viewed as ‘normal’ or ‘acceptable’ is described as happy. So how do I get people to look for emotional balance in their horse when they think they already have it? Too much focus on equipment or the way it is used just isn’t the answer. We need to learn to become better at reading and feeling for our horses. We need to better know how to recognise the signs of tension, discomfort, pain or suffering that can creep in when training upsets emotional equilibrium.

Each horse must be treated as an individual, the training must be tailored to suit each case.

It’s not about the bit, the whip, the tack, the hands, the seat…. It’s about how they are used with each individual horse. It’s about how the horse feels. It’s about finding emotional balance.

There are plenty of examples of ‘liberty’ riding out there in which the horses have been trained purely with aversive stimuli. There are also some examples of horses fully conventionally tacked that have been trained mainly with appetitive stimuli….. It’s not the equipment that tells the tale, it’s the mental wellbeing of the horse.

Perhaps it’s time I stopped riding Rosie tackless and showed people that she can be just as happy saddled, bridled, bitted, plaited, and competing…..

Perhaps then people will begin to see through the bathwater and focus on the baby.

http://www.helenspencehorsesense.co.uk

This is adapted from an article that I wrote for EquiAds Ireland Magazine,  2008.

I would say that the question that I get asked most frequently is “Do you do natural horsemanship?” closely followed by “Are you a horse whisperer?” 

These are probably two of the most difficult questions to answer, simply because everyone has a different definition of what natural horsemanship is, and what being a horse whisperer entails! You see I could answer yes and no to them both and be telling the truth. However, what I always say to people is that I don’t believe in the ‘method’ approach to horsemanship. And horse whispering may be a cosmic art, or it may simply be the ability to read and listen to what a horse is saying- this doesn’t necessarily need a sixth sense (although it helps sometimes!).

What I believe in is GOOD horsemanship.

I believe that this entails understanding a horse’s natural behaviour (i.e. that they are herd animals, prey animals and flight animals).

We need to understand that horses are all individuals and that temperament means that they each fall onto a different point on the spectrum of being herd, prey and flight animals (i.e. some are more sensitive,  more reactive or less confident than others).

We should understand how horses learn and how best to train them, taking into account these individual differences, and take on board the lessons learned from scientific research as well as practical experience.

We need to culitvate the awareness to listen to the horse and work out what they are trying to say with their behaviour (even if this means developing a bit of a sixth sense!).

We must develop ourselves.  What are the qualities of a good trainer and how do we achieve or cultivate these? How can we improve our self awareness and feel.?

It is essential that we understand how different management and training techniques affect each individual’s stress levels and learning abilities.

By knowing ourselves as individuals and recognising our strengths and weaknesses we can work on making life easier for the horse by improving ourselves as horse people, rather than making life easier for us with the use of gadgets and quick fixes.

Alois Podhajsky (former Director of the Spanish Riding School of Vienna) said that “If a rider thinks that he has found a new method he may be sure that if it is any good he has come upon it by instinct or chance and that it was practised long ago by the old masters”.

The more I experience on a practical level in my work, and the more I study the various ‘methods’ of horsemanship, from classical and natural right through, the more I agree with this statement.

There are so many similarities, and time and again you see that great horsemen use very similar techniques, though they might be described in different ways.

However, to me, the key is in understanding WHY these methods work. When you take the approach of studying WHY, you will find that you do not follow a ‘method’ but instead are on the road to GOOD horsemanship.

The most important quality of good horsemanship is that you have complete freedom to work with the horse in what is the most suitable way for that individual, given their temperament, history and your experience.

‘Methods’ often lead to people getting stuck in boxes. When you adhere to a ‘method’ set out by a particular horse person, you have to follow their recommendations and experiences. This can be incredibly useful in the early stages because you benefit from their experience and it can help to set a structure on how you work.

However there is no substitute for understanding WHY, and often these methods don’t teach the WHY, simply the HOW. In fact, as a psychologist and having studied equine behaviour and training on an academic as well as practical level I can tell you that often the WHY of these methods is very different to what some of these horse people say it is!

Following a method can work well enough until you meet a horse that doesn’t respond to this particular method in the expected manner. I have seen some well known and respected trainers get caught in this trap. The only way to truly assess what is the best way to work with a horse is to understand the WHY. After all, this famous quote says it all: “Art ends where violence begins. Violence begins where knowledge ends”.

For this reason, my driving passion in what I do is not to create a method that people follow- it is to give people the tools to understand WHY- so that they can study every horse person and every method, and pick and choose the best bits to incorporate into their own way of doing things.

For this same reason I like to teach people to understand themselves as individuals, their strengths and weaknesses and how these feed into their time spent with horses, so that they can play to their strengths and work on their weaknesses. 

I believe that understanding WHY is empowering and inspiring people to be the absolute best horse people they can be.

If you would like to learn a little more about this and about my philosophy, then visit my website www.helenspencehorsesense.co.uk